Copper that is mined from copper ore, after beneficiation, becomes high quality copper concentrate. Then, after being smelted, refined copper and copper products are yielded.
There are two main methods of smelting copper, one is pyrometallurgy, and the other is hydrometallurgical. Nowadays, the main smelting method is pyrometallurgy, which accounts for 85% in the world.
The details are as follows:
Pyrometallurgy usually adopts original ore, in which its content can reach 20%-30% after mineral processing. Copper concentrate is put into an airtight blast furnace, reverberatory, electric furnace, or flash furnace for matte smelting. The output of molten matte is then put into the converter for converting into a blister copper, and next into another kind of reverberatory. Following oxidation refining complex or casting anodes for the purpose of electrolysis, electrolytic copper with grade of up to 99.9% is finally produced. The process is short and with strong adaptability, and copper recovery rates can reach 95%. However, because sulfur escapes as waste gas, and is not easy to recycle, pollution can easily result. In recent years, more and more pyrometallurgy methods have been developed,such as the silver method, Noranda process, Japan’s mitsubishi process etc.
Source: Metals: Scarce: Base – Copper Production: Ore Processing: Sulfide Ore- Smelting
Hydrometallurgy is usually suitable for low grade copper oxide, and the product of refined copper is called electrolytic copper. Modern hydrometallurgy methods usually can be separated as: the sulfating roasting- leaching- electrodeposition method; leaching- extraction- electrodeposition method; and bacterial leaching method. These methods are suitable for leaching of low grade complex ore, copper oxide ore, dump leaching contained waste copper ore, selection of tank leaching or in situ leaching. This smelting technology is gradually advancing, and is predicted to reach 20% of total output at the end of this century. Adopting hydrometallurgy will greatly reduce smelting costs.
Characteristics and comparisons of the above two methods
(1) Equipment for the latter method is simpler, but the impurity content is greater.
(2) The latter method is subject to limitations in the grade of ore and types.
(3) The cost of the former process is higher than the latter.
According to the above, the hydrometallurgical method is relatively advantageous, but the scope of its applications is more limited, so not all the smelting of copper ore can adopt this technique. As technology has improved over recent years, more and more countries have applied the technique in copper ore smelting, including the US, Chile, Canada, Australia, Mexico and Peru.
Some other metals, just like gold, nickel,etc. may have the same method as copper.
Copper concentrate powder is very abrasive, common metal pipes and valves are easy to be worn. Foyo full lined ceramic ball valves have proven and successful performance in copper concentrate transportation pipe lines.
In January, 2016, Foyo delivered two 4″-CL150 lever operated ceramic ball valves to a copper smelting plant, and after more than two years, the valves are still be in service in the copper concentrate pipe lines.
Thanks to the excellent performance of Foyo full lined ceramic ball valves, the end user re-ordered two ceramic ball valves for thier copper concentrate line. It is certain that our products save a lot of maintenance costs for our customers.
Emerson introduces powerful diagnostics for flow meter intelligence
Smart Meter Verification software allows users to fine tune and adjust their engineering processes to ensure absolute measurement confidence and top performance.
Advanced Smart Meter Verification diagnostics to deliver real-time intelligence and calibration of Coriolis and magnetic flow meters for a complete process overview and greater operational certainty.
Emerson has launched the latest version of its Smart Meter Verification software for Coriolis and magnetic flow meters, providing flow meter verification on demand and empowering process engineers, technicians and operators to look beyond the meter and make real-time decisions based on the most advanced meter and process diagnostics in the industry today.
New tools in the Smart Meter Verification software allow users to fine tune and adjust their engineering processes to ensure absolute measurement confidence and top performance in the chemicals, food and beverage, life sciences, oil and gas, and other process industries. In addition to onboard diagnostics, Smart Meter Verification also accelerates implementation of companies’ Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) strategies with its powerful remote diagnostics, digital intelligence and multiple data points providing users with a complete process overview and greater operational certainty.
Rather than costly and time-consuming calibrations and laboratory testing, leading to production interruptions, shut-downs and safety concerns, the advanced Smart Meter Verification provides in situ calibration verification on-demand without any impact on process or meter outputs. The new system also provides operators with crucial information on other flow issues across the plant.
“Whereas traditional diagnostics often provide just an entry point to further, time-consuming analysis, the Smart Meter Verification system generates real-time, decision-making intelligence and flow measurement confidence here and now,” said Taylor Scott, software product specialist, Emerson Automation Solutions. “For plant operators and engineers, this move from reactive to predictive diagnostics means improved knowledge, operational certainty and productivity, and the acceleration of IIoT strategies.”
Key features of the advanced Smart Meter Verification include:
- Innovative algorithms that detect corrosion and erosion in the meter with remedial action able to be instigated immediately. Emerson is also the first company to integrate a 99 percent-confidence statistical meter damage detection algorithm that enables early detection without false alarms.
- New process diagnostic capabilities that include a “flow range” diagnostic, which alerts the engineer when flow rates are not within the specified range of the meter; instrument diagnostics that can identify if entrained gas is in the process; and immediate alerts to process upsets that may affect measurement performance, such as severe aeration.
- Tube coating diagnostics that offer crucial data points and drive valuable information to the end user, alerting them when the meter is coated by something unexpected from the process line, particularly important in food and beverages and life sciences applications.
- Clear and transparent verification audit trails, and advanced visual analysis and reporting software that meets third party regulatory agency compliance requirements in lieu of meter calibration, inspection or removal. By providing a time-stamped verification report, an increasing number of international standards and third-party agencies, such as ISO, IEC, AGA, API, NMI and others, recognise verification technologies, such as Smart Meter Verification, as a method to confirm instrument calibration and extend recalibration or proving intervals.
- Reduced meter maintenance requirements with vital variables, such as mass flow, verified to be within factory accuracy specifications. Smart Meter Verification also generates detailed information on all sensors, including serial numbers, condition temperature and calibration information, ensuring a simple path to instrument and process compliance.
Emerson’s Smart Meter Verification diagnostics are an easy-to-use, automatic tool for Micro Motion™ Coriolis and Rosemount™ magnetic flow meters that monitor the entire flow meter’s performance and integrity and are applicable in a wide variety of process industry sectors, such as oil and gas, food and beverage and chemicals.
New ORBINOX knife gate valve for Water Treatment Applications
ORBINOX has launched a new range of knife gate valves created especially for Water Treatment applications and designed to comply with both AWWA C520-14 and MSS SP-81 standards.
The EW series knife gate valve is a lug type unidirectional knife gate valve with a single ductile cast iron body. It has been designed to include bonnets if the application requires them, with both o-ring and conventional PTFE-impregnated type packings. The valve can be produced with metal-to-metal seats or 100% bubble-tight resilient seats and rising stem and non-rising stem configurations are available. Flange drilling is in accordance with ASME B16.5 class 150 and EN-1092 PN 10, Please note that alternative flange drillings are available on request.
The ORBINOX EW knife gate valve series is available in sizes ranging from 2” (DN50) up to 36” (DN900mm). It is suitable for working pressures of 10 bar up to 24” (DN600) and of 7 bar from 28” (DN700) up to 36” (DN900), and comes with either handwheel, gearbox, pneumatic cylinder, electric or hydraulic actuation options. Thanks to our experience in the design and manufacturing of specialist valves, we can adapt to suit specific application requirements by offering different materials or fabricated valves as required.
Here at ORBINOX we have used our extensive experience in the design and manufacturing of knife gate valves, check valves and penstocks to offer a comprehensive product range for various Water Treatment applications such as Water and Waste Water Treatment Plants, Water and Waste Water Pumping Stations, Sludge Handling, Storm Tanks, Desalination Plants and Irrigation Systems.
Major flow control contracts for Rotork at giant Chinese refinery
Rotork has received major contracts to supply electric and pneumatic valve actuators and valve gearboxes to Hengli Petrochemical (Dalian) Refinery Co. Ltd. for flow control in its new refinery and petrochemicals complex, one of the largest in China, at Changxing Island in Dalian City.
The latest contract involves approximately 2,000 explosionproof electric actuators to operate gate valves and ball valves in tank farms. All these units are Rotork IQ non-intrusive intelligent multi-turn actuators with double-sealed IP68 watertight protection for enhanced reliability, an important consideration in the site’s saline ambient environment. In addition to providing optimum reliability, the IQ actuator is also designed for advanced functionality, particularly in those areas associated with predictive maintenance and asset management.
IQ actuator dataloggers record detailed operating data including valve torque profiles, the number of valve operations and alarms. The ability to download and analyse this information can make a vital contribution to effective long-term asset management of the refinery. The IQ actuators are combined with Rotork Gears IB multi-turn and IW quarter-turn secondary gearboxes to meet the operating demands of the wide range of valve sizes and types.
Pneumatic actuators orders encompass Rotork CP, GP and RC ranges of scotch yoke designs for quarter-turn valves. The combination of these ranges facilitates the direct-drive actuation of valves of virtually any size.
The ability to deliver complete electric and fluid power solutions, with local manufacturing and service support in China, enables Rotork to provide a single source for flow control on the project.
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